How The Nutrients Work



RED
denotes how nutrient relates to pregnancy.


Complete List of All Nutrients & How They Work
(Together) To Make a Healthy Baby.  

Prenatal nutrition is like baking a cake: if you omit one recipe ingredient or more, the cake/baby won’t be as perfect. “   -     by Birgitta Lauren,expectingfitness.com  Copyright© 2008


Vitamin A  (2,500 iu’s each of fish liver oil and natural carotenes from D. salina).


A fat-soluble vitamin occurring naturally in 2 forms: preformed A and beta-carotene. The richest source of preformed A is found in fish-oil. Beta-carotene in carrots and greens. Preformed A is easier to absorb than carotene which needs to be converted into A for absorption. Certain disorders like diabetes may be unable to absorb carotene. Vitamin A is vital for immune function, all tissue (skin, hair, eyes, organs) growth, repair, and protection, helps fight infections and regenerates cells for proper body functions including fertility and miscarriage prevention. Deficiencies have shown to cause difficult births, fetal death, cleft palate and other congenital defects.  Vitamin A also aids in sex hormone and mucus production. Cooking and pureeing vegetables helps absorption. Vitamin A needs zinc and fat for absorption, and works with vitamin E, D, and C. Cold weather hinders absorption and stress calls for more A.



Vitamin C  (375 mg of calcium ascorbate).


A water soluble vitamin essential for tissue growth, wound healing, calcium and iron absorption, utilization of synthetic folic acid into folinic acid, collagen formation (for skin, ligaments and bones) and an antioxidant. Vitamin C aids in red blood cell formation with vitamins B12, B6, Folate, iron, selenium, etc. Red blood cells carry oxygen to tissues and a developing fetus. Any stressful situation (mental, fever, drug use, toxic fumes, any painkillers, mercury poisoning, hypoglycemia, high copper, or iron levels, schizophrenia, smoking, the pill, menstruation and the last trimester of pregnancy) increases vitamin C needs. C also helps fight and prevent viruses, bacteria and most diseases. Vitamin C is best absorbed in smaller and more frequent dosages. Deficiencies can cause poor lactation, shortness of breath, bleeding gums painful joints, slow wound and infection healing, nosebleeds and tendencies for bruising. (Problems that can be exacerbated during pregnancy. ) C promotes fine tooth formation, regenerates collagen, minimizes effects of oxygen deprivation, toxic exposures (mercury, nitrates, pesticides CO, gasoline, lead, benzene (plastics) etc.), and helps depression, hypothyroidism and helps improve IQ levels in children.



Vitamin D3 (550 iu’s of cholecalciferol).  


A fat soluble vitamin acquired from foods (like fish liver oil) and unprotected exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D2 is synthetic and D3 is the natural form.  D aids calcium and phosphorus absorption for proper bone formation and normal bone and tooth growth in children. Vitamin D depends on calcium and phosphorus levels to be adequate and works with vitamin A for best absorption and function. The more skin pigmentation (darker skin) you have, the less vitamin D is produces from sun exposure. Caucasians need 15-20 minutes of sun a day, blacks may need up to 45 minutes (with no sun block). Mineral oil can destroy stored D. Air pollution, clouds, windows, sun block creams and clothing also prevents vitamin D production. Normal needs are set at 400 Iu’s a day. Pregnancy and nursing increases dietary needs for D. Deficiencies can increase rickets (softened skull + fragile bones), bone disorders (bowing legs, spinal curvature, enlarged joints), poorly developed muscles, nearsightedness, kidney disease and nervous irritability. A deficiency is seen mostly in premature babies and children that don’t get enough sunlight. However, doctors & the AAP are advising more vitamin D for Infants. In Sweden infants get A&D drops through 2 – 5 years of age. Together, vitamin A, D and C can help minimize colds.


Vitamin E   (200 iu’s d-alpha tocopherols succinate & mixed d-beta and d-gamma from soy)


A fat soluble vitamin composed of 7 tocopherols (alpha, beta, delta, epsilon, eta, gamma and zeta). Alpha being the most potent, and of greatest nutritional value. It’s found in vegetable oils, wheat germ, all raw seeds, nuts and soybeans. Vitamin E prevents oxidation  of vitamin A, B’s and C, and the free radicals that can cause much damage such as cancer, blood clots and to the DNA.  Vitamin E teams with oxygen to prevent it from converting into toxic peroxides, leaving red blood cells more fully supplied with pure oxygen that is carried to organs and a developing baby. Vitamin E affects reproduction greatly by preventing miscarriages, increasing male and female fertility and male potency. Deficiencies include muscle wasting, impaired hormonal glands, liver, kidneys, cystic fibrosis, hemorrhaging, weakness, anemia, and edema in premature and malnourished infants. In men it can cause irreparable damage to testes. Women will miscarry or not carry to full term. E deficiencies contribute to congenital heart defects and cancer in children. Vitamin E has shown to regulate menstrual rhythm, ease headaches, and reduce perspiration odor. Vitamin E absorption is interfered with by estrogen in birth control, inorganic iron, chlorine in drinking water, and mineral oil. Vitamin E can be used after child birth to prevent blood clotting, against viruses like the flu, and in diabetics. E is best taken before meals or at bedtime. It may also aid in calcium absorption. E is non toxic in high doses except to people with hypertension. The US diet is lacking in E due to processed and refined foods from milling the wheat germ from grains.


The B complex group


B vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, B15, biotin, choline, Folate, Inositol, and PABA are water soluble. They can be cultivated from bacteria, yeast, fungi or mold. They are essential in metabolizing carbohydrates, protein, and fats, providing our bodies with energy, the health of hair, skin, eyes, liver and our nervous system or mental state. B vitamins needs constant replenishment and are easily depleted by anti-biotics, sugar, caffeine, sleeping pills, insecticides, estrogen and through sweating. All B vitamins work so closely together and must therefore be taken together. Supplementing with one or just a few (such as the synthetic prescription prenatals) makes them either useless or can cause a deficiency in others by throwing off the balance. A high dose of one can deplete the others. Because of their metabolic function, they should be taken on a full stomach. Unfortunately the American diet lacks in B vitamins due the processing of foods, high sugar and caffeine consumption, alcohol consumption, and stress.     Deficiencies show up as, irritability, depression, suicidal tendencies, gray, falling hair, baldness, acne, skin problems, loss of appetite, insomnia, anemia, constipation, high cholesterol, and enlarged tongue. Sugar and alcohol are empty carbs with no enzymes for digestion, so they deplete the body’s already stored B vitamins. B vitamins have been used to treat drug/alcohol addictions, migraines, heart problems, polio, ADD, ADHD, even when Ritalin failed, postoperative nausea, vomiting, constipation, tender gums, dry eyes, fatigue, mouth cracks and menstrual problems. Extra B vitamins are needed when pregnant, nursing, while under stress or an infection.


Vitamin B1, Thiamine  (75 mg thiamine hydrochloride usp)  


Bi is the “granola vitamin” found in the germ of bran, husk of rice and the part of all grains that is milled and processed away to create “white” foods.  It is most important for a healthy nervous system to aid mental attitude, learning capacity, carbohydrate metabolism (sugars alcohol etc..), growth in children, intestinal muscle tone, digestion and in preventing fatty artery deposits. Thiamine also works with manganese and proteins. Sugar, smoking, and alcohol deplete us of B1. Raw fish and seafood destroys B1.   Pregnancy, lactation, high carbohydrate intake, diarrhea, fever, stress, surgery (C-section) and older age increases needs for thiamine.  A thiamine deficiency causes impaired carbohydrate metabolism, loss of mental alertness, breathing, and cardiac function, fatigue, loss of appetite (anorexia), irritability, emotional instability, memory loss, abdominal distress, constipation, tender calf muscles, optic nerve inflammation, reduced coordination and motor speed.  It has even been linked to the beginning chain of events leading to uterine cancer. Thiamine has successfully treated alcoholics, nausea fatigue, and constipation.


Vitamin B2 Riboflavin   (62 mg riboflavin usp)


Riboflavin works with enzymes to utilize cell oxygen, and is essential for skin, nails, hair and good vision. RDA’s for pregnancy is 1.5 mg, nursing: 1.7 mg,, men 1.6 mg and women  1.2 mg.  Vitamin B2 is found in organ meats like liver, milk, eggs, and brewer’s yeast. Deficiencies are common due to various dietary habits and alcoholism.  Symptoms are mouth cracks and sores, sore tongue, eyelid sand, burning eyes, eye fatigue and light sensitivity, skin scaling around the face and head, sluggishness, dizziness, retarded growth, reduced milk supply, vision problems in pregnant women, depression, problems urinating, vaginal itching and cataracts. Eczema, hyperthyroidism, vision problems, fever, stress, surgery, and injuries can be helped with extra B2.


Vitamin B3, Niacin    (100 mg 78% niacinamide usp & 23% Niacin usp)


B3 is more stable than B1 and 2 and more resistant to heat, light and air. Niacin improves circulation, cholesterol levels, nervous system, digestion, skin and helps produce sex hormones. Lean meat, poultry, fish, peanuts contain some but not much niacin. Brewer’s yeast, wheat germ, and desiccated liver are better sources. The amino acid tryptophan can be converted into niacin. RDA’s are for men 16 mg, children 9-16 mg, women 13 mg with increased needs for pregnancy, nursing, illness, tissue trauma, and after exercise. Doses higher than 100 mg can cause skin tingling, itching, and flushing for 15 minutes and is not considered dangerous. The synthetic niacinamide provides the benefits without the side-effects, but can cause depression and liver problems over 2,000 mg.  Deficiencies are very common, such as muscular weakness, fatigue, indigestion, bad breath, canker sores, insomnia, irritability, nausea, and vomiting, deep depression, headaches and in very severe cases, vertigo, dementia, paranoia, hallucinations, diarrhea, tremors, and nervous problems. Niacin is especially fast at treating disorders such as diarrhea, vertigo, deafness, high blood pressure, circulation, and acne. B3 is essential for brain health, and can help prevent cancer, help with weight loss, normalize hypoglycemic blood sugar levels, clean arteries in smokers, help insomnia, alcoholism, arthritis and has incredible calming properties.


Vitamin B5Pantothenic acid    (275 mg d-calcium pantothenate usp)


B5 hangs out in all living cells; in yeast, molds, bacteria and all cells of all animal and plant cells.  B5 stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce cortisone and hormones for skin and nerves. Pantothenic acid also helps metabolically for proper utilization of all nutrients, especially Riboflavin or B2. B5 also helps digestion, help you cope with stress, reduces toxic effect of anti-biotics and radiation, and helps in preventing premature aging. B5 is found in organ meats, brewer’s yeast, egg yolks and whole grains. But 33% is lost in cooking, and 50% is lost in processing flour. Vinegar and baking soda can destroy B5. Folate helps B5 absorption. We need 10-15 mg a day, but stress, pregnancy, food intake and urination increases needs. Deficiencies are rare, but symptoms would range from vomiting, restlessness, muscle cramps, insulin sensitivity, hypoglycemia, skin problems, respiratory problems, and adrenal exhaustion which can lead to depression, insomnia, fatigue, and motor nerve problems. All these things could severely affect a pregnancy. Pantothenic acid is great at preventing arthritis, stress, fatigue and infections.


Vitamin B6   
(63 mg pyridoxine hydrochloride usp)


B6 is vital for vitamin 12 absorption, production of hydrochloric acid and magnesium, balances sodium and potassium levels, helps linoleic acid function, tryptophan conversion to niacin, and  proper metabolism. Red blood cell production cant’ happen without B6, (this is crucial for fetal growth).  B6 is found in desiccated liver, brewer’s yeast, meat and whole grains. But B6 leaves our bodies every 8 hours via urine.  Dieting depletes B6, but B6 if taken alone will cause an imbalance or deficiencies of other B vitamins. We need 2 mg a day, but much more during pregnancy, lactation, oral contraceptive use, radiation, aging, and cardiac problems. Doses up to 300 are safe, but higher amounts taken for a long time, can be toxic. Deficiencies can cause hypoglycemia, edema during pregnancy, moth and eye cracks, muscle cramps, slow learning, visual problems, arthritis, and nervous system problems and increase urination. A B6 deficiency continued throughout pregnancy can cause still birth, and SIDS. Infants born to deficient moms have convulsions. Women absorb more B6 when pregnant which increases the need for supplemental B6 for the baby.  Too much B6 without zinc can cause numbness and tingling. B6 always needs zinc, manganese and niacin. B6 is a natural diuretic, has been found helpful with nervous disorders, male sexual disorders, photosensitivity, eczema, cholesterol, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, muscular weakness, burning feet, kidney stones, acne, tooth decay, diabetes, stress and gestational nausea and vomiting. 


Folate   
(800 mcg 50% each of folic acid L-10-formyltetrahydrofolate & L-5-methylterahydrofolate)


Folate works with vitamin B12 and C to utilize protein and is necessary for red-blood-cell formations which carry oxygen through the blood to our bodies and a growing baby in utero. Folate also forms nucleic acid, which is vital for growth and reproduction of all body cells. Folate is crucial for brain function, mental and emotional health, proper appetite and helps prevent food poisoning. It is sadly the most deficient nutrient in our diets as it’s easily destroyed by light and high temperatures, or even when food is left out for too long. Green leafy veggies, liver and brewer’s yeast are high in Folate. Especially pregnant women lack Folate.  Pregnant women need 800 mcg daily.  A deficiency can lead to anemia, irritability, forgetfulness, mental sluggishness, cancer, damaged blood vessels, blood clotting, cholesterol, cardiovascular, neurological, skeletal, digestive problems, and while pregnant to mentally retarded children, spina bifida birth defects, cleft palate, brain damage and poor learning abilities in a child. Other problems during pregnancy of Folate deficiency are preeclampsia, premature birth, after birth hemorrhaging and anemia in both mom and child. Alcohol, oral contraceptives and anti-convulsants interferes with Folate absorption. Folate can also help with diarrhea, ulcers, menstrual problems atherosclerosis, fatigue, forgetfulness and graying hair. Most supplements are made of Folic Acid the synthetic form of Folate (naturally occurring in foods). Folic acid is not bioactive and must be converted by our intestines before it can be used. 25% of people have reduced ability to convert Folic acid and un-metabolized folic acid can be stored in cells, inhibiting Folate dependent functions. Healthy Baby vitamins include two bioactive natural forms of Folate to support optimal Folate nutrition. Unlike folic acid, these naturally occurring Folates require no transformations to be used by the body.


Vitamin B12
(200 mcg 75% methylcobalamin & 25% S-adenosylcobalamin)


B12 is the only vitamin containing essential mineral elements and cobalt which is vital for longevity. This vitamin can’t be made synthetically. It must be grown like penicillin in bacteria or mold. B12 is only found in animal foods like kidney, meat, fish and dairy and never in plant foods. Without B12, iron, Folate, 4 amino acids and B5 cannot do their work producing red blood cells that will carry oxygen around the body for tissue repair, growth and to a growing baby in utero. B12 is absolutely essential in pregnancy and nursing and vegan diets are not advised. B12 helps Folate synthesize Choline, absorption of vitamin A and helps produce the genetic DNA and RNA material. B12 needs calcium, hydrochloric acid and a properly functioning thyroid for proper absorption. Absorption decreases if iron, calcium and B6 is low and with age. Laxatives also deplete this vitamin. 3 mcg are needed daily and 4 mcg when pregnant and nursing.  Laxatives, diuretics and stool softeners (in some prescription prenatal vitamins can deplete a pregnant woman’s body of many vital nutrients). Deficiency symptoms can take 5 years to appear in the form of sore and weak legs, decreased reflexes, poor walking, speaking, and brain damage leading to schizophrenia (numbness, shooting pains, pins-and-needles and hot-and-cold feelings).  Psychotic symptoms can be mild to severe with mental and memory defects. Body odor and menstrual problems are signs of deficiency.  B12 injections can be used, and are helpful for osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, vision loss from smoking, fatigue, depression, insomnia, balance and memory problems. B12 improves children’s growth and pregnant woman’s resistance to infections. B12 also reduces bruising, black eyes,  liver injury from toxic exposure and the growth rate of cancer in children.


Biotin  
(1,650 mcg biotin usp)


Biotin is another B vitamin. It is necessary for fat production, and utilization of protein, Folate, B5 and Vitamin B12 which is important in pregnancy. It’s found in animal and plant foods like egg yolks, beef liver, unrefined rice, brewer’s yeast, cauliflower, and mushrooms.  It’s important to eat your eggs cooked as raw egg whites prevent its absorption, as does antibiotics. Up to 300 mcg are needed daily, and more when pregnant and nursing. Deficiency symptoms include muscle pain, poor appetite, dry skin, no energy, insomnia, depression decreased hemoglobin’s (red blood cells) and high cholesterol.


Choline   (150 mg choline bitartrate)


Choline is a most vital B vitamin that is sadly forgotten in many prenatal supplements, especially prescription ones. It works with inositol for proper fat and cholesterol utilization helping to keep the liver and kidneys healthy. It  is found mostly in lecithin, egg yolk, liver, brewer’s yeast and wheat germ. Choline is a must for healthy nerve fibers and helps to prevent gallstones. B12, Folate and Methionine helps its absorption. Daily requirements are not known but estimated at 1000 mg daily. We get about 500-900 daily from food. Please remember that all B- vitamins work better when they are ALL taken together. Big doses of one could cause a deficiency in another. Also not eating enough protein could cause a Choline deficiency that may result in liver, kidney problems, ulcers, high blood pressure, artery hardening etc… Blood pressure, heart palpitations, dizziness, headaches, constipation, insomnia and visual problems can be helped with Choline.


Inositol 
(113 mg)


Inositol works closely with Choline and Biotin as well as with vitamin B6, Folate, Pantothenic acid and PABA.  It is also found in Lecithin as well as grains, citrus, brewer’s yeast, unrefined molasses and liver. Inositol promotes lecithin production to aid fat metabolism. It prevents cholesterol, artery hardening, liver, kidney and heart problems. Inositol is a vital component in brain nutrition and is found din spinal cord nerves, cerebral spinal fluid. It’s also needed for growth, bone marrow, eyes, intestines and hair growth to prevent baldness (hair loss is common during nursing). Coffee can deplete Inositol which is recommended in same levels as Choline. Inositol can treat constipation, baldness, high cholesterol, anxiety (as good as Valium), and hypoglycemia.  


Para-amino benzoic acid PABA
(75 mg)

 
PABA is an important part of the B-complex vitamins working as a “vitamin within a vitamin”. It is present and combines with Folate to help protein usage in production of red blood cells. PABA stimulates intestinal bacteria to produce Folate, which also helps production of vitamin B5. PABA is vital for the health of skin, hair, intestines and is a natural sunscreen. Too much PABA can be toxic to the liver, heart and kidneys. Not enough can cause fatigue, irritability, depression, headaches, and digestive problems. PABA has been used to restore graying hair with Folate, preventing and treating sunburn, as well as delaying wrinkles, dry skin and age spots in ointment form.


Calcium   
(500 mg 91% citrate-malate & 9% ascorbate)


Our most abundant mineral. 99% of calcium is used for our bones and teeth. The other 1% is used for blood clotting, nerve and muscle health, parathyroid hormone function and metabolizing Vitamin D. Calcium cannot work efficiently and absorb properly without being in the proper balance with phosphorus, magnesium, vitamins A, C, D, and possibly E. Together calcium aids with bone building & maintenance, healthy blood, insomnia, calming nerves, sunburns, preventing sun caused skin cancer, arthritis, helping with menopausal and PMS problems, regulating heart beat, muscle contraction, muscle cramps, growth, nerve transmission, regulating nutrient flow in cell walls and gum disorders. Calcium absorption is hindered by too much dietary fat, oxalic acid (in chocolate, spinach, rhubarb), phytic acid (cereals grains), lack of exercise, lack of sunshine (vitamin D), stress, depression, lack of vitamin C and A or too much phosphorus (common in US diets). In times of need such as rapid growth, and pregnancy our bodies greatly improve our calcium absorption.  Deficiencies shows up as muscle cramps, arm and leg tingling, osteoporosis heart palpitations, impaired growth of babies, irritability of nerves and muscles. Pregnancy does improve calcium absorption 3 fold, and a growing fetus will most likely get enough calcium by just “eating off moms bones” if she is not consuming enough, but she then risks osteoporosis later in life. With sever calcium deficiencies she will hamper the growth and development of her baby’s bones, teeth, nerve and muscular system. Calcium can be found in dairy but is easier to absorb from green vegetables, grains, seeds, nuts, beans and legumes. Calcium shouldn’t be consumed in the form of shark cartilage or oyster shell when pregnant to prevent toxic exposure.  Healthy Baby vitamins use calcium citrate –malate, which is highly absorbable, safe, and well-tolerated. 40% more is absorbed from citrate –malate than from carbonate or milk.


Iodine  
(75 mcg kelp)


The trace mineral iodine is converted into iodide in the body. Iodine helps development and function of the thyroid gland and its thyroxin hormone. The thyroid promotes growth, development, energy production, metabolism, fat burning, mental health, speech, hair, skin, nails, and teeth, converting carotene to vitamin A, carbohydrate utilization, and cholesterol synthesis. RDA is raised to 175 mcg for pregnant women from 150 mcg and to 200 mcg for nursing women. Iodine is found in sea life (plant & animal) and mushrooms from soil. An overdose could mess with thyroid hormones. Deficiencies of iodine are; simple goiter, thyroid enlargement, artery hardening, obesity, slow metabolism, slow mental reactions dry hair, rapid pulse, heart palpitations, nervousness, irritability and can cause cretinism. Cretinism is congenital birth defects of physical and / or mental retardation from mothers lacking in iodine through adolescence and pregnancy. Polio is linked to iodine deficiency. Summers see higher rates of polio due to more perspiration and some raw foods like cabbage, broccoli, nuts etc can interfere with iodine absorption. Cretinism can be treated with iodine if started immediately after birth.


Iron   
(30 mg iron amino acid chelate)


Iron is a mineral concentrate present in every living cell together with protein. The most important mineral, especially during pregnancy. Iron’s biggest job is to work with protein and copper to produce red blood cells that will transport oxygen from the lungs to all tissues for maintaining all our body’s life functions, including fueling the cell division and growth of a developing baby. Iron improves resistance to stress, disease, forms myoglobin in muscle tissue Myoglobin also transports oxygen to muscles to help muscle contract. Iron metabolize protein, and helps the pulmonary system, but only with the help of calcium and copper. Calcium and phosphorus needs be in balance or if phosphorus is too high it will prevent iron absorption. Hydrochloric acid, caffeine, and cellulose, can also interfere. Excessive perspiration and menstruation can deplete the body of iron. Iron is found in liver, oysters, lean meat as well as in plants like green leafy, whole grains, dried fruits and legumes. Animal sources are easier to absorb. The naturally occurring in food “ferrous iron” is better used than synthetic “ferric”.  RDA is 18 for women, 10 for men, with needs increasing during menstruation and doubling-tripling during pregnancy and nursing, as the baby builds up its stores.  Toxic levels of iron can happen from blood transfusions, prolonged high supplementation, too much red wine, or due to diabetes, low pancreas, aplastic anemia, hepatitis, and vegetarian diets.  Iron deficiencies causes anemia, lack of red blood cells and oxygen in blood content causing pale complexion, fatigue, constipation, brittle nails, poor breathing, miscarriage, poor growth in fetus and premature delivery.


Magnesium  
(312 mg magnesium amino acid chelate)


Magnesium is an essential mineral that work with calcium and phosphorus to help metabolize carbohydrates and amino acids. Magnesium is important for muscular contractions, regulates acid-alkaline and temperature  levels, helps absorption of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, vitamins B, C and E. Magnesium is found in green vegetables, raw wheat germ, soybeans, daisy, whole grains, seafood, figs, corn, apples seeds and nuts. It needs a properly working thyroid, calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D for proper absorption. Water absorption, calcium, phosphate, lactose, and parathyroid hormones can influence magnesium absorption.  RDA’s are 350 mg for men, 300 mg for women and 450 mg for pregnancy and lactation. Magnesium needs increase with higher levels of protein, calcium and vitamin D. Toxicity is very rare. Deficiencies are very common due to processed refinement and cooking of foods. Oxalic acid from spinach, chocolate and phytic acid in cereal can interfere with absorption. So will diseases like diabetes, liver cirrhosis, arteriosclerosis, kidney failure, high carb diets, diarrhea, and vomiting?


Zinc  
(7.5 mg zinc amino acid chelate)


Zinc is an essential trace mineral that is very busy. It aids in all vitamin absorption, especially B’s and with 25 enzymes it works on metabolism and carbohydrate digestion and breaks down alcohol. Zinc helps proper development of reproductive organs and DNA synthesis (the master life substance that carry all inherited traits and direction of each cell), keeps the prostate gland healthy, and heals wounds and burns.  Too much calcium, phytic acid (grains) and the ingestion of toxic cadmium can deplete zinc stores. We normally need 15 mg a day, 30 when pregnant and 40 when nursing, but from a normal diet we only get 8-11 mg. Higher zinc intakes require more vitamin A, but too much zinc can interfere copper and iron.   Deficiencies are usually caused by an unbalanced diet or alcohol. A deficiency will contribute to  stress, fatigue, infections, retarded growth, delayed sexual maturity, slow wound healing, stretch marks, white nail spots, brittle nails, hair, irregular periods in teens, impotence and painful joints  in young men. Zinc deficiencies can cause sterility and dwarfism, unhealthy prostates, liver disease, ulcers heart attacks. Pregnant women and those using birth control pills are usually low in zinc. Zinc and vitamin B6 may contribute to pregnancy nausea, still birth, birth defects, mental retardation, and babies that slow learners. Zinc is essential for treating and preventing infertility, and to help maturation and healthy growth of sex organs.  It also helps night vision and diabetes.


Selenium  
(100 mcg selenium amino acid complex)


This essential mineral works with Vitamin E on metabolism, normal growth, and fertility. It is an anti-oxidant that preserves skin elasticity (perhaps helpful with stretch marks), blood pressure, and energy-producing cells. Selenium gets into plant and animal food via soil. Fertilizers and sulphurs from acid rain prevent absorption. Cooking reduces selenium contest by 45% and processed foods looses 50-75% of its selenium. Meat, fish, grains and dairy contains selenium. RDA’s call for 50-200 mcg, but many doctor’s call for 250-350 mcg a day. Most only get about 50 mcg day.  More than 700 mcg can be toxic and cause hair, teeth and nail loss, dermatitis, lethargy, fevers etc….     Men may need more selenium as sperm contains a lot of selenium and it will be lost during intercourse. A deficiency can cause premature aging from lack of tissue elasticity, mental retardation, vision loss, and even death. Selenium is vital for reproduction in female fertility and in keeping sperm mobile and healthy. Broken sperm tails and higher cancer rates have been seen in deficient animals.


Copper   (1 mg copper amino acid chelate)


This trace mineral is crucial for hemoglobin formation. Copper facilitates iron absorption and works with vitamin B12, Folate, B6, to build red blood cells that carry oxygen through our body and to a developing fetus. Copper is also involved in hair & skin health, protein metabolism, nerve fiber health, elastin formation (elastic in muscle fibers), and bone and RNA formation. It can be found in liver, whole grains, almonds green leafy veggies, fish dried legumes and drinking water from copper pipes. 30% of ingested copper is absorbed and enters blood in 15 minutes.  Copper is toxic in high levels causing physical and mental illness. High serum levels of copper can be caused by abnormal metabolism, birth control pills and is found in people with hypertension and that smoke. It may contribute to hypertension, stuttering,autism, ADD, ADHD, preeclampsia in pregnancy, PMS, depression, insomnia senility and hypoglycemia. Too much copper can also reduce body iron and molybdenum.  Pregnancy estrogen hormones elevate copper levels that won’t normalize for 2-3 months postpartum, which could play a part in postpartum depression.  Not enough copper may cause anemia, edema kwashiorkor, weakness impaired respiration. Many premature infants lack in copper. Deficiencies would hamper proper growth and development of a baby during pregnancy.


Manganese  
(5 mg manganese amino acid chelate)


The trace mineral manganese is very busy. Manganese activates enzymes, to aid utilization of Choline, vitamin B1, B2 and C. it helps synthesize fatty acids, and cholesterol. It’s important for metabolism of protein, carbohydrates, and fat. Manganese aid in skeletal, urine and breast milk production and may have a role in blood formation. It can help in treating diabetics. You can find manganese in whole grains, egg yolks, nuts, seeds, and green veggies.  We lose 4 mg daily that needs replacing. A higher intake of calcium and phosphorus requires more manganese. Processed foods have been voided of manganese. Too much manganese can reduce iron utilization, and cause physical and mental weakness and difficulties.  Deficiencies cause diabetes, atherosclerosis, epileptic seizures, and neuromuscular diseases. In infants, deficiencies can cause paralysis, convulsion, blindness, and deafness.


Chromium    (100 mcg 50% each chromium polynicotinate & chromium amino acid chelate)


Chromium is an essential mineral working with niacin (vitamin B3) and amino acids. Chromium helps synthesize fatty acids, cholesterol, metabolizes glucose for energy, amino acids, and ensures proper blood sugar and insulin levels to prevent hypo or hyperglycemia. This mineral is important for pregnant women to avoid gestational diabetes and ensure baby’s proper growth. The baby uses a lot of chromium. Chromium is best absorbed from brewer’s yeast, liver, beef, whole-wheat bread, beets, molasses, and mushrooms.  But chromium is very difficult to absorb. We only retain 3% and age decrease absorption. The US diet is deficient due to deficient soil, processed and refined foods and milling of wheat.


Molybdenum  
(75 mcg molybdenum amino acid chelate)

This trace mineral is found in all plant and animal tissues to help with metabolism of iron, fats, and copper. It is found in meats, legumes, grains and dark leafies, but food content depends on soil content. RDA’s are for 150 – 500 mcg daily. Too much molybdenum results in diarrhea, anemia, copper defiecency, and slow growth rate. Male impotence, anemia, and dental caries is deficiency symptom. Eating processed and refined foods may cause deficiencies.  Rates of esophageal cancer have been reduced with a proper Molybdenum intake.


Potassium
(45.5 mg potassium aspartate-ascorbate complex)


Potassium is an essential mineral that works with sodium to regulate water and alkali balance, and normalize the heart beat. Potassium is vital for normal growth, healthy skin, muscle contractions, glucose conversion, and protein metabolism and to help the kidneys get rid of poisonous waste. It works with Phosphorus to transport oxygen and with calcium to maintain healthy neuromuscular function. It is found mostly in bananas and potatoes (especially their skin) but also in all other vegetables, oranges, grains, sunflower seeds and mint. Kidney failure can result in excessive potassium build up. High sodium intake however, can deplete the body from potassium as can alcohol, caffeine, diarrhea, sweating, vomiting, diuretics, Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), or a lack of magnesium. 2,000 -2,500 is the RDA’s. It is available in many foods but deficiencies can be caused by inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables, eating too much sugar, too much salt and stress. A deficiency can paralyze muscles by impaired glucose metabolism, cause poor reflexes, sagging muscles, acne or dry skin in older persons. Infants with diarrhea may be deficient Potassium chloride injections have treated colic in babies and allergies.


Boron   (1 mg boron aspartate-citrate)


Boron, a trace element, enhances the body's ability to use calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D. It seems to assist in brain functioning and recognition. Boron prevents calcium and magnesium from being lost in the urine and may help decrease menstrual pain by increasing the oestradiol level, a type of estrogen. It may reduce arthritis symptoms. A deficiency may result in bone loss, increasing the risk of arthritis and elevated blood pressure. It should be taken with manganese, calcium and B2.  Consuming refined foods can cause a deficiency. Prunes, dates, raisins, honey, nuts, grapes, pears, green leafy vegetables and beans are good sources or Boron.


Vanadium  
(50 mcg bis-glycinato oxovandium)


Vanadium is similar to zinc and a trace element present in most tissues and essential to our health. Vanadium helps bone, cartilage, teeth development and proper growth. Animal studies  shows vanadium’s importance in iron metabolism and red blood cell growth and therefore in reproduction. Deficiencies in animals cause less reproduction and higher rates of infant mortality. Vanadium is present in fat, vegetable oil, whole grains, fish, and meat. Food processing destroys vanadium. RDA’s are 100-300 mcg/day


Citrus Bio-flavinoids
(vitamin P)      
(50 mg 85% citrus bio-flavinoid complex &15% hesperidin methylchalcon)


Bio-flavinoids are closely related to vitamin C and occur in the white segments of fruits. Bio-flavinoids are vital for vitamin C absorption and acting as antioxidants, maintaining collagen, capillaries, and helps against infections. Synthetic vitamin C contains no bio-flavinoids. Deficiencies can cause rheumatism. Bio-flavinoids has helped treat asthma, dizziness, and miscarriages, bleeding gums, eczema, muscular dystrophy, hemorrhaging and irregular menstruations.


Omega Fatty Acid  
(1,000 mg marine fish oil concentrate (EPA 360 mg & DHA 270 mg)


Omega Fatty Acids are proving to be one of our most important nutrients, especially during pregnancy and nursing. There are fish oils, algal oils and plant oils. Fish oils being the most beneficial contain a natural balance of EPA and DHA Omega – 3 long-chain fatty acids. EPA is vital for joint function and cardiovascular health, which are very important during pregnancy for mom’s joints and cardiovascular system but also for developing the baby’s joints, cardiovascular system, as well as visual and brain health. DHA together with vitamin D3 is crucial during pregnancy to help stabilize mom’s moods and prevent depression and postpartum depression.  DHA’s and D3 improves behavior, learning and mood disorders. It improves neurological development in children to prevent ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia, autism etc..  DHA also protects our skin and hair and may reduce eczema risk in children. Our diets are reaching historically low levels of Omega’s  says Dr. Alex Richardson of the University of Oxford, UK, resulting in brain damage in our children. Improved fish oil intake boosts child development, via breast milk. Omega’s have also been linked to pollution protection. Fish oil supplements come mostly from anchovies, herring, mackerel and sardines harvested from Morocco and South America during Oct - Nov. And recent research has shown that the worlds regulated fish oil supplement industry is producing very pure mercury free fish oil.  Algal oils are mainly used in infant foods and lately in some prenatal supplements. Algal oils is algae (fungus) extracted DHA via a process using the chemical Hexane, a neurotoxin and byproduct of petroleum refinement. It is being promoted as being of vegetarian or plant origin, but algal oils have already shown to be causing health problems in infants, including diarrhea and may cause retardation due to Hexane. Plant oils come mostly from flaxseed and contain ALA, a short-chain fatty acid. ALA can in high doses be converted in the body to EPA but not to DHA. Plant oils are very good for our hearts and brains and can also be found various nuts and beans as well. Omega fatty acids do need a little help from friends like the B vitamin Choline for best absorption.


Vitamin K


Vitamin K is fat soluble. K1 and 2 can be manufactured in the intestines. K3 is synthetic used in treating people lacking bile production necessary for all fat soluble vitamin absorption. Yogurt can help K production. Vitamin K is important for blood clotting, glucose to glycogen conversion. It is found in kelp, alfalfa, leafy greens, yogurt, egg yolks, molasses fish liver oils etc.. Rancid fats, radiation aspirin, antibiotics and pollution can destroy K.


SOURCES:

Books: Nutrition Almanac, Lavonne Dunne.                                                                            Alternative Medicine, Burton Goldberg.     

People: Jem Welsh – Jem Welsh Nutrition., Denise Weisner, www.NaturalHealingAcupuncture.com

             Articles:
Note : rest of source list  is still  under construction


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